t: 0116 241 8331 e: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Association for Psychological Therapies (APT) is a leading provider of training for professionals working in mental health and related areas, and below are the most frequently asked questions in relation to the RAID® Approach.
RAID stands for ‘Reinforce Appropriate, Implode Disruptive.’ In other words it advises us to Reinforce Appropriate behaviour and Implode (‘encourage to collapse’) behaviour that is Disruptive. Disruptive behaviour means behaviour that is disruptive either to the person’s wellbeing or the wellbeing of those around them. In the RAID philosophy Appropriate behaviour is termed green behaviour, and Disruptive behaviour is termed red behaviour.
RAID is a positive approach to addressing challenging behaviours. It focuses on nurturing positive (‘green’) behaviour and improving quality of life, while reducing the occurrence of challenging (‘red’) behaviours. RAID is based on the understanding that behaviour is influenced by the environment and aims to create supportive environments that make challenging (‘red’) behaviours less likely to occur.
RAID emphasises strategies to promote positive (‘green’) behaviours, rather than approaches that focus on negative behaviour, punishment or consequences. RAID recognises that people may exhibit challenging (‘red’) behaviours as a means of communication or due to unmet needs, and may seek to address those underlying factors rather than solely focusing on the behaviour itself.
RAID is an approach that whole teams are often keen to ‘sign up to’ as it offers a shared positive approach, and it often appeals to organisations of all sorts because it provides a clear, consistent, positive philosophy.
Although RAID applies to individuals it also focuses very much on the team, so that there is an overall milieu of positivity, so the focus is mostly on green behaviour most of the time. ‘The team’ can be in a residential treatment facility, a community team, colleagues in a workplace, or a family in their home.
Here are some of the main differences (and similarities):
1. RAID tends to focus on the system or environment so as to set things up to encourage adaptive and productive (‘green’) behaviour and so to displace the disruptive (‘red’) behaviour. So if you are interested in setting up a ward, a school, someone’s home, a workplace etc in a way that maximises positive ‘green’ behaviour then probably RAID will be of more interest to you.
2. PBS tends to focus more on specific individuals so has more focus on analysing the function of challenging behaviour for specific individuals and so working out how that function can be better achieved for them. So if this is more your interest, then PBS will probably be of more interest to you.
3. Having said the above, it is also true that there will be an overlap. RAID has an attractive Behaviour Support Plan for individuals built into its course, and PBS is also interested in creating positive and helpful environments. The overlap is formalised in that RAID can be regarded as a form of PBS.
4. So they are similar in that they both share a very positive non-punitive outlook, and are both interested in helping people with challenging behaviour to behave in a way that works better for them and those around them.
Here are some of the main reasons for RAID working:
1. It strengthens the relationship between caregiver and client, by laying emphasis on appropriate behaviour, rather than involving oneself in non-productive interactions over difficult and disruptive behaviour.
2. In the RAID® approach we are focusing largely on positive behaviour so are inclined to automatically model such behaviour.
3. It notices and reinforces what the client can already do and builds on it.
4. Stressing appropriate behaviour and highlighting it when it occurs 'builds' the client, makes them feel more competent and less frustrated. Building their 'self-efficacy' in other words.
5. People may strive to have us take notice of them, so we are best to take notice in response to green behaviour rather than waiting for red behaviour to occur before we notice.
6. Focusing on positive behaviour motivates us and keeps us thinking in positive terms.
7. It encourages us to reinforce behaviours which are incompatible with those we are trying to reduce.
8. It gives real information. Whereas criticism only tells us that we have made one error and there are millions of others to make, highlighting ‘adaptive’ behaviour gives hard information on how to do things right, time and time again.
9. The RAID® approach minimises the possibility of reactance or countercontrol.
10. Functional Analysis: A functional analysis is often conducted to understand the purpose or function that the challenging behaviour may serve for an individual. If this is identifiable then the RAID approach recommends helping the person find a better way of achieving the same function.
11. The RAID Behaviour Support Plan: An individualised RAID Behaviour Support Plan outlines strategies to promote positive ‘green’ behaviours and prevent the occurrence of challenging (‘red’) behaviours in specific individuals. It includes strategies such as teaching alternative behaviours, and modifying the environment, as well as reactive strategies to address ‘red’ behaviours if they do occur.
The key principles of RAID are:
1. Nurturing Positive Behaviour: The focus of RAID is on nurturing positive ‘green’ behaviour so it simply displaces the ‘red’ behaviour for people.
2. Proactive Approach: RAID emphasises a proactive rather than reactive approach. So it focuses on nurturing ‘green’ behaviour and teaching appropriate replacement behaviours that meet people’s needs and of those around them.
3. Function-Based Approach: RAID recognises that challenging (‘red’) behaviours often serve a purpose or function for people. Understanding the underlying function helps to address the root causes and develop effective strategies to meet the person's needs in more positive ways.
4. Collaboration and Teamwork: RAID promotes collaboration and teamwork. It emphasises the importance of working together, sharing information, and aligning efforts to support positive behaviour change consistently across different settings.
5. Effective Practices: RAID is grounded in evidence-based practices. It emphasises the use of interventions and strategies that have been shown to be effective in promoting positive behaviour-change and improving outcomes for people.
6. Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: RAID involves monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions. This allows for adjustments and refinements to be made based on feedback, ensuring that needs are being met effectively.
By adhering to these principles, RAID seeks to promote positive behaviour change, improve quality of life, and foster inclusive and supportive environments for people with challenging behaviours.
RAID differs from traditional behaviour management in several ways:
1. Focus on Positive Approaches: Traditional behaviour management often relies on ‘consequences’ to address challenging (‘red’) behaviours. In contrast, RAID emphasises positive approaches that focus on promoting desired behaviours rather than focusing on punishing or extinguishing challenging behaviours.
2. Understanding the Function: RAID seeks to understand the underlying functions that challenging (‘red’) behaviours serve for people. By identifying the function of the behaviour, RAID aims to address those needs in more positive and appropriate ways. Traditional behaviour management may not always consider the underlying function.
3. Systems-Level Approach: RAID aims to create supportive teams and environments and address factors that may contribute to people’s challenging behaviours. In contrast, traditional behaviour management may focus primarily on the individual's behaviour without considering broader contextual factors.
4. Collaboration: RAID is largely a whole team approach and so emphasises collaboration and teamwork. This collaborative approach aims to create environments that encourage behaviours that work well for people rather than badly.
5. Long-Term Outcomes: RAID places emphasis on long-term outcomes and quality of life improvements for people. It aims to promote people’s strengths, skills, and independence, while also addressing challenging behaviours. Traditional behaviour management may be more focused on short-term behaviour control.
Overall, RAID offers a proactive, and collaborative approach to addressing challenging (‘red’) behaviours, with a focus on promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours and improving overall well-being.
Using RAID offers several benefits for people. Some key benefits include:
1. Promotes Positive Behaviour: RAID focuses on promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours that displace the challenging (‘red’) behaviours. By creating an environment that encourages ‘green’ behaviours, people can develop new skills and a more rewarding life.
2. Enhances Quality of Life: RAID aims to improve the overall quality of life for people by addressing their needs and goals. By promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours throughout, RAID can help people build relationships, and participate in meaningful activities.
3. Diminishes Challenging (‘red’) behaviours: By promoting green behaviours, RAID seeks to diminish red behaviour by the simple expedient of displacing it with the green. Through proactive strategies such as modifying environments, and teaching communication and coping skills, RAID can significantly reduce the occurrence of challenging (‘red’) behaviours.
4. Collaborative Efforts: RAID involves collaboration and teamwork. This collaborative approach ensures that interventions and strategies are tailored to people’s needs and implemented across different environments.
5. It gives the team a clear approach: The team, no matter who and where it is, has a clear positive approach that is summarised in one word, RAID. This invites a high degree of team cohesion and focus.
6. Long-Term Results: By addressing the underlying causes of challenging (‘red’) behaviours and promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours, RAID contributes to long-term behaviour change and enhances sustainability. It is not solely focused on short-term behavioural control but aims to facilitate lasting improvements in behaviour and overall well-being.
7. Non-Aversive Approach: RAID emphasises non-aversive strategies to address behaviour. RAID utilises positive reinforcement, teaching alternatives, modifying environments, and addressing needs to bring about behaviour change.
8. Effective: The strategies and interventions used in RAID have been shown to be effective in promoting positive behaviour change and improving outcomes for people across various settings.
Overall, using RAID helps to create supportive environments, promote positive behaviour change, and enhance people’s quality of life.
RAID can be implemented in various settings. While the specific strategies and approaches may vary based on the context, here are some general ways RAID can be implemented in each setting:
1. Collaborative Team Approach: Establish a team including teachers, support staff, administrators, and families to collaborate on implementing RAID strategies.
2. Assess and Identify: Conduct functional behaviour assessments to understand the functions of challenging (‘red’) behaviours among students.
3. Individualised Behaviour Plans: Develop individualised behaviour support plans for students based on assessment results, incorporating proactive strategies and teaching replacement behaviours.
4. Teach and Reinforce Desired Behaviours: Use positive reinforcement techniques and provide explicit instruction to help students develop behaviours that work well for them.
5. Modify Environment: Create supportive environments by structuring classrooms, implementing visual supports, providing clear expectations, using preventative strategies, and creating positive reinforcement systems.
1. Leadership Support: Ensure leadership buy-in and support for RAID implementation, emphasising the importance of positive and supportive work culture.
2. Training and Education: Provide training and workshops on RAID principles and practices, targeting both managers and employees to create a shared understanding and common language.
3. Addressing Work Environment: Modify the workplace environment by promoting clear communication, setting realistic expectations, offering opportunities for employee input, and creating supportive policies and procedures.
4. Recognition and Reinforcement: Recognise and reinforce positive (‘green’) behaviours and contributions through acknowledgment and feedback.
5. Coaching and Support: Provide ongoing coaching and support for managers and employees to facilitate the implementation of RAID strategies and address any challenges that arise.
Homes and Residential Treatment facilities including secure facilities:
1. Collaborative Planning: Involve all relevant people in developing a RAID environment, and Behaviour Support plans for individuals.
2. Establish Predictable Routines: Establish consistent routines and structures that provide clarity and predictability for people, reducing anxiety and promoting positive (‘green’) behaviour.
3. Clear Expectations: Establish clear expectations for behaviour, communication, and problem-solving within the environment.
4. Reinforcement and Rewards: Use positive reinforcement and rewards to motivate and reinforce adaptive behaviours.
5. Communication and Collaboration: Maintain open and effective communication among everyone, ensuring consistent implementation of RAID strategies and addressing any concerns or challenges that arise.
It is important to note that implementation of RAID may require ongoing training, support, and adjustments based on the needs and characteristics of each setting. Using a positive approach and constantly assessing effectiveness are key to successful implementation.
Yes, there are specific strategies and techniques used in RAID to promote positive (‘green’) behaviours and address challenging (‘red’) behaviours. Some common strategies and techniques include:
1. Noticing and Reinforcing ‘green’ behaviour: Reinforcement (either positive or negative) increases the occurrence of desired behaviours. Positive reinforcement does so by adding consequences that the individual finds positive, and negative reinforcement does so by taking away from the person things they find negative. Both are the opposite of punishment and both lead to an increase in the person’s quality of life.
2. Replacement Behaviours: Teach people alternative or replacement behaviours that serve the same function as the challenging behaviour but are more appropriate. For example, teaching a child to use words instead of hitting when they are frustrated.
3. Functional Analysis: Conducting a Functional Analysis helps identify the function of challenging (‘red’) behaviours. This information guides the development of appropriate interventions to help the person achieve the same function in a way that works better for them.
4. Environmental Modifications: Modify the physical and social environment if necessary to reduce triggers or barriers that may contribute to challenging (‘red’) behaviours.
5. Communication and Social Skills Training: Teach people effective communication and social skills to enhance their ability to express their needs, wants, and feelings appropriately, and to interact positively with others.
6. Collaborative Problem-Solving: Involve people in identifying and solving problems or conflicts, allowing them to provide input and participate in decision-making processes. This increases their sense of ownership and promotes positive (‘green’) behaviour.
7. Data Collection and Analysis: Collect and analyse data on behaviours to track progress, identify patterns, and determine the effectiveness of interventions. This helps in making data-driven decisions to modify or refine strategies as needed.
These are just a few examples of the strategies and techniques used in RAID. The selection of specific strategies will depend on people’s needs and the context in which RAID is being implemented.
RAID reduces challenging (‘red’) behaviours through several mechanisms:
1. Positive Approach: RAID recognises and addresses the needs, strengths, and goals of people. By adopting a positive approach, RAID ensures people are cared for in an environment where positive behaviour is everyone’s main focus, people are talking about it and encouraging it, promoting inclusion and a sense of belonging.
2. Noticing and Reinforcing ‘green’ behaviour: Reinforcement (either positive or negative) increases the occurrence of desired behaviours. Positive reinforcement does so by adding consequences that the individual finds positive, and negative reinforcement does so by taking away from the person things they find negative. Both are the opposite of punishment and both lead to an increase in the person’s quality of life.
3. Collaborative Teamwork: RAID involves collaboration. This collaborative approach promotes open communication, shared decision-making, and a coordinated effort to support positive (‘green’) behaviours and create inclusive environments.
4. Environmental Modifications: RAID focuses on modifying the environment to minimise barriers and maximise opportunities for positive (‘green’) behaviour. By creating supportive environments that meet people’s needs, RAID promotes green behaviour and contributes to a sense of acceptance, reduced stress, and enhanced participation and engagement.
5. Teaching Appropriate Behaviours: RAID involves teaching people alternative, desired behaviours to replace challenging (‘red’) behaviours. By providing people with the necessary skills and tools to communicate, cope, and interact effectively, RAID increases their ability to engage in positive (‘green’) behaviours and reduces the need for challenging behaviours.
6. Functional Analysis: RAID invites an assessment of challenging behaviours, including understanding the underlying functions or reasons behind them. This helps identify the specific triggers and needs driving the behaviours, enabling the development of targeted interventions that address those underlying issues rather than just addressing the behaviours themselves.
7. Proactive Strategies: Rather than reactive approaches that may focus on consequences for challenging (‘red’) behaviours, RAID emphasises proactive strategies to prevent challenging behaviours from occurring in the first place. This includes creating supportive routines, clear expectations, and effective supports, which promote inclusion and reduce the need for challenging behaviours.
By promoting a positive approach, involving collaboration and teamwork, modifying environments, teaching appropriate behaviours, and using positive reinforcement, RAID creates inclusive environments that support positive (‘green’) behaviours while reducing the occurrence of challenging (‘red’) behaviours. This not only benefits the individual but also enhances the overall experiences for everyone involved.
Yes, RAID can be used with people of all ages, its principles and techniques can be applied to people across the lifespan. RAID has been successfully implemented with adolescents and adults, in various contexts, in both community and residential settings.
As it title suggests, RAID focuses extensively on Reinforcing Appropriate behaviour, and this principle holds good across the age range, even though what we agree as ‘Appropriate’ varies across ages, as does what constitutes effective Reinforcement.
The strategies and interventions used in RAID can be adapted to meet the specific needs and developmental stages of people. RAID recognises that behaviour is influenced by environmental, social, and biological factors, regardless of age. The focus remains on promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours, minimising challenging (‘red’) behaviours, and creating supportive environments.
It's important to note that when implementing RAID with people of different ages, the strategies and approaches may be modified to suit their abilities and preferences. The collaboration and involvement of everyone concerned is important, regardless of the age group to ensure a holistic approach to behaviour support.
RAID is a flexible framework that can be tailored to the needs of people from childhood through to adulthood. By focusing on positive behaviour change and promoting inclusion, RAID can support people of all ages in improving their quality of life and achieving their goals.
Yes, there can be potential challenges and limitations when implementing RAID. Here are some of them:
1. Staff Training: To effectively implement RAID, staff members need to be trained on the principles involved. However, providing thorough and ongoing training can be somewhat time-consuming, and there might be difficulties ensuring that all staff members are knowledgeable and skilled in implementing RAID.
2. Individualisation: Generally RAID focuses a lot on the importance of the team, the system, the organisation, yet sometimes tailoring interventions to meet individual needs. However, it can be challenging to do this in settings with limited resources or low staff-to-individual ratios.
3. Overgeneralisation: Sometimes, people may have difficulty generalising the RAID strategies they learn in one setting to other settings or situations. This can pose a challenge, as it requires additional effort to ensure that the learned behaviours are exhibited across different contexts.
4. External Factors: External factors, such as cultural or socioeconomic influences, can impact the implementation of RAID. These factors may require adaptations or modifications to the strategies and interventions to ensure they are effective and culturally responsive.
Despite these challenges, RAID has been found to be effective in promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours and reducing challenging (‘red’) behaviours. With reasonable planning, training, and support, these challenges can be minimised, allowing for successful implementation.
Communication and collaboration can be enhanced when using RAID through several strategies:
1. Clear Communication Channels: This can include regular meetings, newsletters, emails, and shared documents to ensure everyone is informed and updated on the progress and strategies being implemented.
2. Shared Goals and Expectations: Collaboratively establish shared goals and expectations for RAID. This involves involving everyone in setting goals that are meaningful and relevant to people’s needs and aspirations. Clearly communicate these goals and expectations to ensure everyone is working towards the same outcome.
3. Collaborative Problem-Solving: Encourage collaboration in problem-solving by involving everyone in identifying and addressing challenging (‘red’) behaviours and what their function may be. This can be done through regular team meetings where concerns and ideas are openly discussed and brainstormed. By actively involving everyone, diverse perspectives and expertise can contribute to effective solutions.
4. Regular Communication and Feedback: Foster regular and ongoing communication between everyone involved in RAID. Share progress updates, successes, and challenges, and seek feedback from others. This can help identify areas for improvement and ensure that everyone is on board in implementing the strategies effectively.
5. Professional Development and Training: Provide training and professional development opportunities for everyone involved in RAID. This can include workshops, webinars, or conferences that focus on enhancing communication and collaboration skills. When people have the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate and collaborate, the implementation of RAID becomes more seamless.
6. Data Sharing and Analysis: Share data and analysis related to RAID behaviour support. This includes collecting and sharing data on behaviours, interventions, and outcomes. Analysing this data collaboratively can help identify patterns and trends, inform decision-making, and adjust strategies as needed. Sharing data also promotes transparency and accountability.
By implementing these strategies, communication and collaboration can be enhanced, leading to more effective and coordinated RAID practice.
Yes, there are several evidence-based interventions and concepts associated with RAID. Some of the notable ones include:
1. Functional Analysis: Functional Analysis is a process of gathering information to understand the underlying function or purpose of challenging (‘red’) behaviours. It helps in determining why a behaviour occurs and guides the development of effective intervention strategies.
2. Reinforcement: Reinforcement (either positive or negative) increases the occurrence of desired behaviours. Positive reinforcement does so by adding consequences that the individual finds positive, and negative reinforcement does so by taking away from the person things they find negative. Both lead to an increase in the person’s quality of life.
3. Differential Reinforcement: Differential reinforcement involves reinforcing alternative or desirable behaviours while withholding reinforcement for challenging (‘red’) behaviours. This approach aims to replace unwanted behaviours with more appropriate behaviours.
4. Interpersonal Skills Training: Interpersonal skills training focuses on teaching people the necessary skills for effective social interactions and communication. This intervention helps people develop adaptive social behaviours and improve their relationships with others.
5. Noncontingent Reinforcement: Noncontingent reinforcement is where good things happen even though they have not been ‘earned.’ This is particularly effective in lifting mood and promoting positive (‘green’) behaviours in a variety of settings.
6. Constructive Criticism: This contrasts with ‘standard’ criticism in that instead of highlighting what the person did wrong it highlights what the person could do to benefit themselves. It is particularly powerful for those who have been exposed mainly to ‘standard’ criticism.
7. The Constructional Approach. The Constructional Approach refers generally to approaches that involve mainly focusing on building (constructing) positives in people’s lives rather than focusing too much on trying to remove negatives in their lives. This is central to the RAID approach.
8. Positive Psychology. Positive psychology emphasises Strengths and Virtues, takes an Holistic Perspective, focuses on Positive Emotions and Subjective Well-Being, seeks Positive Interventions and positive Relationships, concentrates on Real Life, and takes a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Overall, like RAID, positive psychology seeks to enhance the quality of life and promote human flourishing by focusing on the positive aspects of human existence and providing evidence-based strategies to improve well-being.
Yes, and here are some examples of how RAID can be integrated with other approaches:
1. Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA): RAID shares many principles and strategies with ABA, and they can be effectively integrated. ABA focuses on analysing and modifying behaviour through the application of behaviour principles, while RAID emphasises the use of positive reinforcement and environmental modifications to promote desired behaviours.
2. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT): RAID can be integrated with CBT, which, amongst other things, focuses on identifying and modifying thought patterns and beliefs that contribute to challenging (‘red’) behaviours. By combining the principles of positive reinforcement and environmental modifications with cognitive restructuring and skill-building techniques, a more comprehensive intervention can be developed.
3. Trauma-Informed Care: for people who have experienced trauma, integrating trauma-informed care principles with RAID can be crucial. This involves creating a safe and supportive environment, understanding how trauma affects behaviour, and adopting strategies that promote healing and resilience. The positive nature of RAIDing naturally complements TIC.
4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): The core of DBT is to teach the skills of Emotion Regulation, Distress Tolerance, Mindfulness, and Interpersonal Effectiveness, which are important skills to develop and blend very well with the ‘constructional’ positive nature of the RAID approach.
It's important to note that successful integration of different approaches and interventions requires careful consideration of people’s needs.
For some people, families and caregivers play a vital role in supporting positive (‘green’) behaviours at home. Here are some strategies they can use:
1. Establish Clear Expectations: Clearly communicate and establish expectations for behaviour at home. Set consistent rules and boundaries to provide structure and guidance for people. Try to ensure that everyone in the family understands and follows these expectations.
2. Reinforce Positive Behaviour: Use reinforcement strategies to acknowledge and reward desired behaviours. Provide verbal praise, tokens, or privileges when the individual demonstrates positive (‘green’) behaviours. This encourages them to continue exhibiting those behaviours in the future.
3. Provide Consistency and Routine: Establish a consistent routine at home, as it can help people feel secure and understand what is expected. Consistency in daily activities, mealtimes, and bedtime routines can create a sense of predictability and reduce anxiety or challenging (‘red’) behaviours.
4. Encourage Independence and Choices: Allow people to make choices within appropriate boundaries. Offer them opportunities to make decisions based on their abilities and preferences, which helps promote independence and empowerment.
5. Use Visual Supports: Visual supports, such as schedules, charts, or visual cues, can assist people in understanding expectations and following routines. Visual supports can provide a clear and tangible representation of the desired behaviours and help people navigate daily tasks and activities.
6. Collaboration and Communication: Maintain open and effective communication with the individual and other family members. Encourage active listening and express concerns or ideas without judgment. Collaborate with the individual and involve them in decision-making and problem-solving processes.
7. Seek Professional Support: If needed, consult with professionals such as therapists, behaviour analysts, or educators who can provide guidance and strategies specific to people’s needs. These professionals may be able to offer recommendations for RAID techniques that can be implemented at home.
8. Self-Care for Caregivers: Taking care of oneself is important to providing effective support at home. Caregivers should prioritise their physical and emotional well-being, engage in self-care activities, seek support from others when needed, and practice stress-management techniques.
By implementing these strategies, families and caregivers can create a positive and supportive environment that promotes the development and maintenance of positive behaviours at home.
A 3-day course.
A relentlessly positive approach to working with disturbed and challenging behaviour.
The 3-day RAID® course is the UK’s leading positive psychology approach for tackling disturbed and challenging behaviour at source: over 20,000 professionals have attended it. It is a comprehensive approach which teaches staff a philosophy and practice not only to deal with disturbed and challenging behaviour when it occurs, but also to prevent it by tackling it at source. Staff feel pleased to share a unified system and to know what they are doing and why they are doing it, while clients delight in a relentlessly positive and empowering approach. The essence of the RAID® approach is to play down disturbed and challenging behaviour as far as safety allows, and to nurture and develop positive behaviour so that it systematically overwhelms and displaces the disturbed and challenging behaviour.